Let us in short understand the process of Australian PR. Some terms may look like alien to you, but read it for now. I will try to keep it simple as I can.
Immigration website: www.border.gov.au
Step 1: First you need to roughly calculate your evaluation points and apply for skill evaluation. This point test can be taken on internet and immigration website or you can do it referring to the chart in my other post. These points will actually matter at step 4 when you get invited later. Minimum points need for qualifying is 60 as of now. Check for any updates on the given Immigration website. For more details see, Step 1a - Points Test
You also need to identify the closest ANZSCO code relevant to your occupation. For example, I am a software engineer and fall under code 261313. You can check out the codes on the website again. Australian Immigration department sends out new SOL (Skilled Occupation List) every year in July. Hence your occupation has to be there in the list when lodging the application.
Skilled Occupation List http://www.immi.gov.au/Work/Pages/skilled-occupations-lists/skilled-occupations-lists.aspx
For me it was
You need to apply for skill evaluation to assessing authority relevant to your occupation which was ACS (Australian Computing Society) in my case.
General Timeline: 12 weeks
ACS Lodged: 07 June 2013
ACS Results received: 06 Sept 2013
Your skill evaluation result will mention the ANZSCO code for which you qualify and you will only be allowed to process visa against the same code you were evaluated for.
Step 2: IELTS/OET
To prove your English proficiency, you need to clear the IELTS English test. You need this at step 4 when you are invited.
Step 3: EOI (Expression of Interest)
Once you have your skills evaluated with ANZSCO code, you can proceed to express your interest to migrate to Australia through EOI application. You will need the visa category for which you will be applying at this stage. We applied for 189 (skilled independent) and 190 (Skilled sponsored/nominated). You can also check them on the immigration website or http://www.immi.gov.au/Work/Pages/Work.aspx (Left panel under Visas)
Note that some ANZSCO codes may not be relevant to 190 visa.
Step 4: Invited for lodging visa
Once you have expressed your interest, you need to wait unless the Australian department picks up your application and invites you for lodging visa application. Selection happens in rounds of first come first serve basis. It may be less or more months as compared to our timeline.
Our Timeline: 6 months
EOI 189 lodged: 24 Sept 2013
Invitation received for Visa: 24 March 2014
Note that your points needs to be qualifying at the time you are invited. So if your points were to be decreased due to age factor on the date of the invitation, it may affect your application unless it still under minimum qualifying marks even after deduction.
Step 5: Lodging Visa
Once you are invited, you need to lodge visa application by submitting the fees (non-refundable) and with form and relevant documents against which points has been claimed. You may also get your medicals and PCC (police clearance certificate) done while awaiting case officer allocation or wait unless CO asks for PCC and medicals.
Step 6: CO Allocation
Case Officer (CO) will be allocated within few weeks-months to review your application. While reviewing, if they need more proof to verify your claims, they will e-mail you regarding the same. Your claims may also be verified by tele-verification of references provided. If all documents seem to be fine, you will be granted the visa!
Visa lodged: 29 March 2014
Visa Grant: 13 June 2014
I will be detailing each step for more details, but this is just a short glimpse to understanding the process flow. Also, note that the timelines may differ for each application.